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Part 42—standards Implementing The Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act


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§ 42.3 Basis for civil penalties and assessments.

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(a) Claims. (1) Except as provided in paragraph © of this section, any person who makes a claim that the person knows or has reason to know—

(i) Is false, fictitious, or fraudulent;

(ii) Includes or is supported by any written statement which asserts a material fact which is false, fictitious, or fraudulent;

(iii) Includes or is supported by any written statement that—

(A) Omits a material fact;

(B) Is false, fictitious, or fraudulent as a result of such omission; and

© Is a statement in which the person making the statement has a duty to include the material fact; or

(iv) Is for payment for the provision of property or services which the person has not provided as claimed,

shall be subject, in addition to any other remedy that may be prescribed by law, to a civil penalty of not more than $5,500 for each claim.

(2) Each voucher, invoice, claim form, or other individual request or demand for property, services, or money constitutes a separate claim.

(3) A claim shall be considered made to the Department of Veterans Affairs, or to a recipient or party when such claim is actually made to an agency, fiscal intermediary, or other entity, including any State or political subdivision thereof, acting for or on behalf of the Department of Veterans Affairs, recipient, or party.

(4) Each claim for property, services, or money is subject to a civil penalty regardless of whether the property, services, or money is actually delivered or paid.

(5) If the Government has made any payment (including transferred property or provided services) on a claim, a person subject to a civil penalty under paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall also be subject to an assessment of not more than twice the amount of the claim or that portion thereof that is determined to be in violation of paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Such assessment shall be in lieu of damages by the Government because of the claim.

(b) Statements. (1) Except as provided in paragraph © of this section, any person who makes a written statement that—

(i) The person knows or has reason to know—

(A) Asserts a material fact which is false, fictitious, or fraudulent; or

(B) Is false, fictitious, or fraudulent because it omits a material fact that the person making the statement has a duty to include in the statement; and

(ii) Contains or is accompanied by an express certification or affirmation of the truthfulness and accuracy of the contents of the statement,

shall be subject, in addition to any other remedy that may be prescribed by law, to a civil penalty of not more than $5,500 for each statement.

(2) Each written representation, certification, or affirmation constitutes a separate statement, except that a certification or affirmation of the truthfulness and accuracy of the contents of a statement is not a separate statement.

(3) A statement shall be considered made to the Department of Veterans Affairs when the statement is actually made to an agent, fiscal intermediary, or other entity, including any State or political subdivision thereof, acting for or on behalf of the Department of Veterans Affairs.

© Applications for certain benefits. (1) In the case of any claim or statement made by an individual relating to any of the benefits listed in paragraph ©(2) of this section received by the individual, the individual may be held liable for penalties and assessments under this section only if such claim or statement is made by the individual in making application for such benefits with respect to any element required to establish the individual's initial eligibility to receive or continue to receive the benefits.

(2) For purposes of paragraph © of this section, the term benefits means benefits under chapters 11, 13, 15, 17, and 21 of title 38 which are intended for the personal use of the individual who receives the benefits or for a member of the individual's family.

(3) For purposes of this paragraph, the term application shall include, but is not limited to, any report or statement made or submitted by or for applicant or recipient of a benefit under chapters 11, 13, or 15 of title 38, United States Code, to establish eligibility or to remain eligible for the benefit.

(4) This paragraph is not applicable to an individual receiving benefits in a fiduciary capacity in behalf of an individual eligible for any of the benefits listed in paragraph ©(2) of this section.

(d) No proof of specific intent to defraud is required to establish liability under this section.

(e) In any case in which it is determined that more than one person is liable for making a claim or statement under this section, each person making the claim or statement may be held liable for a civil penalty under this section.

(f) In any case in which it is determined that more than one person is liable for making a claim under this section on which the Government has made a payment (including transferred property or provided services), an assessment may be imposed against any of these persons or jointly and severally against any combination of these persons.

(Authority: 31 U.S.C. 3802)

[53 FR 16710, May 11, 1988, as amended at 61 FR 56449, Nov. 1, 1996]

http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-....1.1.15.0.328.7

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