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Lawyer Fees


seventy5th

Question

Summary of the Case

an accredited attorney/agent properly filed a valid direct pay fee agreement per the provisions of 38 CFR 14.63 in the above cited case. The fee agreement shows that the claimant and attorney/agent request that the Department of Veteran Affairs pay 20% of the claimants award og past due benefits directly to the attorney/agent.

The amount of past dyue benefits, which is computed from the effective date of the award through the date of decision, is $91,951.37. The amount withheld for fees is $12,390.27 which is 20 percent of past due benefits.

Per 38 USC 5904 fees may not be charged, allowed, or paid with respect to services of agents and attorneys before the date on which the notice of disagreement is filed with respect to the case.


What we decided and why

In this case, the NOD was filed on November 7, 2014 and all of the requirements for direct payment of fees have been met. As a result, we will pay the attorney or agent a fee in the amount of $12,390.27. Per the provisions of 38 USC 5904, an assessment in the amount of $100 will be deducted from the fees.

that is verbatim per award letter. im a little confused because 20% of 91k whould be around 18k so why is it 12k? The math just doesnt add up to me or maybe im thinking of all this the wrong way i dont know? and also the last i spoke with my attorney she said the va will send me allt he money and i will pay the firm directly but now va is saying that they are paying the attorney directly at 20% so what gives? and by the way the fee agreement i had with my attorney was 33% so does that mean i cover the remaining 13%?

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Well. My understanding was 20% of past due benefits was the typical fee allowed by law when working on a contingency fee. Was there a break down? Did your attorney pay for an IME/IMO or filling fees up front? Hmm interesting.

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Well. My understanding was 20% of past due benefits was the typical fee allowed by law when working on a contingency fee. Was there a break down? Did your attorney pay for an IME/IMO or filling fees up front? Hmm interesting.

i just read the attorney contract and it says they get 33.3% and i never got a IMO since my evidence was strong enough. all the attorney did was type up my nod and sent the forms needed to file an appeal which was still in RO. The day i was granted which was feb 19 last week va called my attorney and informed me that i was granted IU P&T and my attorney told me that they set it up to where the VA will give me all my back pay and i pay the firm directly. recieved my award letter today and va is witholding 20% for attorney fees. I'll be making a phone call to my RO tomorrow regarding this situation because i just want to know if i have to pay the remaining 13%. my appeal never reached the BVA it was granted at RO level.

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That's wierd. My understanding was no more than 20% was allowed by law. Hmm

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How long did your appeal take from NOD? and did you request a DRO without hearing? I'm curious cause my appeal is relatively on the easy side. The only reason I got an attorney is because I didn't want to wait years for my 100% because I knew I made mistakes in the past , and I didn't want to screw it up. All my attorney did was also file a NOD. That one piece of paper might be worth $20,000? Whatever just as long as I get my 100%. I'm now now at 246 days since NOD

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Well. My understanding was 20% of past due benefits was the typical fee allowed by law when working on a contingency fee. Was there a break down? Did your attorney pay for an IME/IMO or filling fees up front? Hmm interesting.

(f) Presumptions. Fees which do not exceed 20 percent of any past-due benefits awarded as defined in paragraph (h)(3) of this section shall be presumed to be reasonable. Fees which exceed 331/3 percent of any past-due benefits awarded shall be presumed to be unreasonable. These presumptions may be rebutted through an examination of the factors in paragraph (e) of this section establishing that there is clear and convincing evidence that a fee which does not exceed 20 percent of any past-due benefits awarded is not reasonable or that a fee which exceeds 331/3 percent is reasonable in a specific circumstance.

https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/38/14.636

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How long did your appeal take from NOD? and did you request a DRO without hearing? I'm curious cause my appeal is relatively on the easy side. The only reason I got an attorney is because I didn't want to wait years for my 100% because I knew I made mistakes in the past , and I didn't want to screw it up. All my attorney did was also file a NOD. That one piece of paper might be worth $20,000? Whatever just as long as I get my 100%. I'm now now at 246 days since NOD

nod was filed nov 2014 granted feb 2015 out of reno ro. my attorney requested traditional process

Edited by seventy5th (see edit history)
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nod was filed nov 2014 granted feb 2015 out of reno ro. my attorney requested traditional process

Wow, thanks for the response.. Hopefully they will get the ball rolling soon On my appeal. It's ridiculous how they treat these appeals Like stepchildren

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Im curious on my timeframe. I filed for my back in Aug of 2012. Got awarded 30% in June of 2013. Filed for increase and secondaries Aug 2013. Went up to 40% in Mar 2014. Then filed two more claims. Filed NOD on first claim May of 2014. Hired attorney around June 2014. DRO hearing March 2015. This was out of Muskogee Regional Office. From what my attorney has stated, some of my contentions will be rated higher back to my initial claim, however, on two contentions I am headed to the BVA. My attorney believes I will be at 80% before I am finished at the regional level. Which incidentally will get me IU possibly however, that is moot since I am still employed. The kicker with all of this is that I am retiring or trying to go on disability retirement from injuries and illnesses from my federal job.

Anyways, I did read my fee agreement with my rainmaker. With exceptions of IME/IMO and court fees, the maximum fee he will collect is 20% of any retro. That is fine by me and well worth it IMO, but that is just my case. I have multiple agencies trying to short change me and not adhere to the evidence, regulations, and law, so I have attorney's on both VA and Federal Worker's Comp. When SSDI comes into play I may have a third attorney, depending if SSA plays fair.

You know now that I think of it I think it was Bermann and Moore that asked for 30-33 percent of my award if they won my case. I know that Motley Rice charges 30 percent but that is a class action law suit which falls under different laws and rules. Federal Workers comp attorney fees are similar to VA cases. They charge an hourly rate but not to exceed 20% and on so forth.

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The most likely reason is this:

Your attorney probably collected EAJA fees from VA. You may have gotten a remand, and he probably asked the court for fees, and you may not have even known this. So, if he collected 6 grand from the VA, the court wont let him collect it again from you. This is probably the reason why.

I suggest you tell your attorney to petition the court for EAJA to pay more fees..after all you won. The court may award your attorney more fees, and that would be deducted from the amount you owe, and you may not even owe nothing. Remember, the attorney wants to get paid, and he may not care "who from". You or the VA. But you do care, so tell your attorney you have the money earmarked, for xxx, and you need him to request EAJA fees paid for you.

This is one of the things if you dont ask, you wont receive. So, ask your attorney to ask EAJA to pay the fees...even be insistent on that.

Edited by broncovet (see edit history)
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Also, in addition to asking EAJA to pay the fees, its not against the law for you to ask the lawyer to pay a little less. You negotiate for the price of your car, why not attorney's fees?

Again, call the attorney and ask him why the fees are so high. Tell him you dont want to contact the court and tell them you think his fees are excessive, so why not ask him for a Veteran's discount of 10%..or a senior discount? He may just say, "ok" and you saved or made (whichever way you look at it) another $1200. You see, he does not want to fight the court for his fees either, so you can tell your lawyer you wont even ask the court to make you justify lawyer fees if he will just give you a discount. The court reviews, and approves..all legal fees by Vets at the CAVC. The court will approve lesser fees if they think the lawyer spent very little time on this and got a big settlement. Most of the time, I think the lawyer has to submit his "hours" to the court..sometimes maybe even what he did...you know..."2 hours spent preparing NOD...1.5 hours preparing hearing...etc." The judge will look at those hours, and the attorney knows this. Offer your attorney to write a letter to the judge in his behalf if he gives you the requested 10 percent discount. Something like:

"YOur honor. My attorney, Joe Sinclair spent a lot of time on my case. He always answered my questions, and I am very pleased with the outcome. He has even given me a xx percent discount, and I think he fully deserves to be paid the rest of the fees"....signed IMA Happy Vet who not only won his bennies, but saved 1200 on attorney fees.

I get discounts all the time, by simply "asking" for them. If you dont ask, you wont get.

Edited by broncovet (see edit history)
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  • HadIt.com Elder

I'd request that your attorney send you documentation of the hours worked, and by whom, on your case. If he did as little work as you say, the VA may deny some of his payment. I doubt he received any monies from EAJA, unless your claim went to the CAVC, and he represented you there. jmo

pr

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EAJA fees are awarded by the courts in cases where the governments position is substantially unjustified. The BVA, DRO, and RO therefor can't award them. Additionally, the fees only cover the portion of the work done on the matter before the court. So if your attorney did fifty hours of work on the case, thirty done for the BVA portion and twenty for the court portion, then they can only recover foe the twenty hours done for the court portion. Further, the EAJA must offset the attorneys fees of past due benefits dollar per dollar, and if EAJA fees are more then the past due amount the attorney gets, then they only recoe e EAJA fees.

Your case seems odd since the attorney fee was for over twenty percent. It this case the VA is not supposed to with hold any fees. Fees are only withheld if the twenty percent per se reasonable limit is not exceed. This encourages attorneys to charge is amount by ensuring that the federal government pays them and illuminates the need for them to pursue collections.

As far as asking for a discount, be careful. You signed a binding contract and attorney fee agreements for the VA fall under the jurisdiction of the court of veterans appeals. If your attorney sees you as attempting to breach the contract they can go to the court to enforce it. If your agreement imposes a losing party liability for the fee agree,met, you will be on he hook for their legal fees to cover the dispute. Also, if you need any legal help in the future you might run into problems. Most attorneys would probably be hesitant to deal with the trouble client who is always asking for adjustments to the fee contract for arbitrary reasons.

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  • HadIt.com Elder

VA limits attorneys to 20% and that should be the most collected. The fact that the award to attorney is less than 20% but states it is 20% makes me wonder about dates. Maybe the back pay was up to a certain date less what the VA is paying. Like the claim was decided in January and Veteran is paid up to current time?

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As I remember it was 20% plus incidental expenses that the lawyer could charge on a VA case.

The written agreement between the Veteran and the lawyer is fairly standard. There also is

a situation where the court determines compensation, and usually sets a per hour fee that is lower than the lawyer would like.

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i just read the attorney contract and it says they get 33.3% and i never got a IMO since my evidence was strong enough. all the attorney did was type up my nod and sent the forms needed to file an appeal which was still in RO. The day i was granted which was feb 19 last week va called my attorney and informed me that i was granted IU P&T and my attorney told me that they set it up to where the VA will give me all my back pay and i pay the firm directly. recieved my award letter today and va is witholding 20% for attorney fees. I'll be making a phone call to my RO tomorrow regarding this situation because i just want to know if i have to pay the remaining 13%. my appeal never reached the BVA it was granted at RO level.

Title 38: Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief

PART 14—LEGAL SERVICES, GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS

§14.636 Payment of fees for representation by agents and attorneys in proceedings before Agencies of Original Jurisdiction and before the Board of Veterans' Appeals.

(a) Applicability of rule. The provisions of this section apply to the services of accredited agents and attorneys with respect to benefits under laws administered by VA in all proceedings before the agency of original jurisdiction or before the Board of Veterans' Appeals regardless of whether an appeal has been initiated.

(b) Who may charge fees for representation. Only accredited agents and attorneys may receive fees from claimants or appellants for their services provided in connection with representation. Recognized organizations (including their accredited representatives when acting as such) and individuals recognized under §14.630 of this part are not permitted to receive fees. An agent or attorney who may also be an accredited representative of a recognized organization may not receive such fees unless he or she has been properly designated as an agent or attorney in accordance with §14.631 of this part in his or her individual capacity as an accredited agent or attorney.

© Circumstances under which fees may be charged. Except as noted in paragraph ©(2) and in paragraph (d) of this section, agents and attorneys may charge claimants or appellants for representation provided: after an agency of original jurisdiction has issued a decision on a claim or claims, including any claim to reopen under 38 CFR 3.156 or for an increase in rate of a benefit; a Notice of Disagreement has been filed with respect to that decision on or after June 20, 2007; and the agent or attorney has complied with the power of attorney requirements in §14.631 and the fee agreement requirements in paragraph (g) of this section.

(1) Agents and attorneys may charge fees for representation provided with respect to a request for revision of a decision of an agency of original jurisdiction under 38 U.S.C. 5109A or the Board of Veterans' Appeals under 38 U.S.C. 7111 based on clear and unmistakable error if a Notice of Disagreement was filed with respect to the challenged decision on or after June 20, 2007, and the agent or attorney has complied with the power of attorney requirements in §14.631 and the fee agreement requirements in paragraph (g) of this section.

(2) In cases in which a Notice of Disagreement was filed on or before June 19, 2007, agents and attorneys may charge fees only for services provided after both of the following conditions have been met:

(i) A final decision was promulgated by the Board with respect to the issue, or issues, involved in the appeal; and

(ii) The agent or attorney was retained not later than 1 year following the date that the decision by the Board was promulgated. (This condition will be considered to have been met with respect to all successor agents or attorneys acting in the continuous prosecution of the same matter if a predecessor was retained within the required time period.)

(3) Except as noted in paragraph (i) of this section and §14.637(d), the agency of original jurisdiction that issued the decision identified in a Notice of Disagreement shall determine whether an agent or attorney is eligible for fees under this section. The agency of original jurisdiction's eligibility determination is a final adjudicative action and may be appealed to the Board.

(d) Exceptions—(1) Chapter 37 loans. With respect to services of agents and attorneys provided after October 9, 1992, a reasonable fee may be charged or paid in connection with any proceeding in a case arising out of a loan made, guaranteed, or insured under chapter 37, United States Code, even though the conditions set forth in paragraph © of this section are not met.

(2) Payment of fee by disinterested third party. (i) An agent or attorney may receive a fee or salary from an organization, governmental entity, or other disinterested third party for representation of a claimant or appellant even though the conditions set forth in paragraph © of this section have not been met. An organization, governmental entity, or other third party is considered disinterested only if the entity or individual does not stand to benefit financially from the successful outcome of the claim. In no such case may the attorney or agent charge a fee which is contingent, in whole or in part, on whether the matter is resolved in a manner favorable to the claimant or appellant.

(ii) For purposes of this part, a person shall be presumed not to be disinterested if that person is the spouse, child, or parent of the claimant or appellant, or if that person resides with the claimant or appellant. This presumption may be rebutted by clear and convincing evidence that the person in question has no financial interest in the success of the claim.

(iii) The provisions of paragraph (g) of this section (relating to fee agreements) shall apply to all payments or agreements to pay involving disinterested third parties. In addition, the agreement shall include or be accompanied by the following statement, signed by the attorney or agent: “I certify that no agreement, oral or otherwise, exists under which the claimant or appellant will provide anything of value to the third-party payer in this case in return for payment of my fee or salary, including, but not limited to, reimbursement of any fees paid.”

(e) Fees permitted. Fees permitted for services of an agent or attorney admitted to practice before VA must be reasonable. They may be based on a fixed fee, hourly rate, a percentage of benefits recovered, or a combination of such bases. Factors considered in determining whether fees are reasonable include:

(1) The extent and type of services the representative performed;

(2) The complexity of the case;

(3) The level of skill and competence required of the representative in giving the services;

(4) The amount of time the representative spent on the case;

(5) The results the representative achieved, including the amount of any benefits recovered;

(6) The level of review to which the claim was taken and the level of the review at which the representative was retained;

(7) Rates charged by other representatives for similar services; and

(8) Whether, and to what extent, the payment of fees is contingent upon the results achieved.

(f) Presumptions. Fees which do not exceed 20 percent of any past-due benefits awarded as defined in paragraph (h)(3) of this section shall be presumed to be reasonable. Fees which exceed 3313 percent of any past-due benefits awarded shall be presumed to be unreasonable. These presumptions may be rebutted through an examination of the factors in paragraph (e) of this section establishing that there is clear and convincing evidence that a fee which does not exceed 20 percent of any past-due benefits awarded is not reasonable or that a fee which exceeds 3313 percent is reasonable in a specific circumstance.

(g) Fee agreements. All agreements for the payment of fees for services of agents and attorneys (including agreements involving fees or salary paid by an organization, governmental entity or other disinterested third party) must be in writing and signed by both the claimant or appellant and the agent or attorney.

(1) To be valid, a fee agreement must include the following:

(i) The name of the veteran,

(ii) The name of the claimant or appellant if other than the veteran,

(iii) The name of any disinterested third-party payer (see paragraph (d)(2) of this section) and the relationship between the third-party payer and the veteran, claimant, or appellant,

(iv) The applicable VA file number, and

(v) The specific terms under which the amount to be paid for the services of the attorney or agent will be determined.

(2) Fee agreements must also clearly specify if VA is to pay the agent or attorney directly out of past due benefits. A direct-pay fee agreement is a fee agreement between the claimant or appellant and an agent or attorney providing for payment of fees out of past-due benefits awarded directly to an agent or attorney. A fee agreement that does not clearly specify that VA is to pay the agent or attorney out of past-due benefits or that specifies a fee greater than 20 percent of past-due benefits awarded by VA shall be considered to be an agreement in which the agent or attorney is responsible for collecting any fees for representation from the claimant without assistance from VA.

(3) A copy of the agreement must be filed with the Office of the General Counsel within 30 days of its execution by mailing the copy to the following address: Office of the General Counsel (022D), 810 Vermont Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20420. Only fee agreements and documents related to review of fees under paragraph (i) of this section and expenses under §14.637 may be filed with the Office of the General Counsel. All documents relating the adjudication of a claim for VA benefits, including any correspondence, evidence, or argument, must be filed with the agency of original jurisdiction, Board of Veterans' Appeals, or other VA office as appropriate.

(h) Payment of fees by Department of Veterans Affairs directly to an agent or attorney from past-due benefits. (1) Subject to the requirements of the other paragraphs of this section, including paragraphs © and (e), the claimant or appellant and an agent or attorney may enter into a fee agreement providing that payment for the services of the agent or attorney will be made directly to the agent or attorney by VA out of any past-due benefits awarded in any proceeding before VA or the United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims. VA will charge and collect an assessment out of the fees paid directly to agents or attorneys from past-due benefits awarded. The amount of such assessment shall be equal to five percent of the amount of the fee required to be paid to the agent or attorney, but in no event shall the assessment exceed $100. Such an agreement will be honored by VA only if the following conditions are met:

(i) The total fee payable (excluding expenses) does not exceed 20 percent of the total amount of the past-due benefits awarded,

(ii) The amount of the fee is contingent on whether or not the claim is resolved in a manner favorable to the claimant or appellant, and

(iii) The award of past-due benefits results in a cash payment to a claimant or an appellant from which the fee may be deducted. (An award of past-due benefits will not always result in a cash payment to a claimant or an appellant. For example, no cash payment will be made to military retirees unless there is a corresponding waiver of retirement pay. (See38 U.S.C. 5304(a) and 38 CFR 3.750)

(2) For purposes of this paragraph (h), a claim will be considered to have been resolved in a manner favorable to the claimant or appellant if all or any part of the relief sought is granted.

(3) For purposes of this paragraph (h), “past-due benefits” means a nonrecurring payment resulting from a benefit, or benefits, granted on appeal or awarded on the basis of a claim reopened after a denial by a VA agency of original jurisdiction or the Board of Veterans' Appeals or the lump sum payment that represents the total amount of recurring cash payments that accrued between the effective date of the award, as determined by applicable laws and regulations, and the date of the grant of the benefit by the agency of original jurisdiction, the Board of Veterans' Appeals, or an appellate court.

(i) When the benefit granted on appeal, or as the result of the reopened claim, is service connection for a disability, the “past-due benefits” will be based on the initial disability rating assigned by the agency of original jurisdiction following the award of service connection. The sum will equal the payments accruing from the effective date of the award to the date of the initial disability rating decision. If an increased evaluation is subsequently granted as the result of an appeal of the disability evaluation initially assigned by the agency of original jurisdiction, and if the agent or attorney represents the claimant or appellant in that phase of the claim, the agent or attorney will be paid a supplemental payment based upon the increase granted on appeal, to the extent that the increased amount of disability is found to have existed between the initial effective date of the award following the grant of service connection and the date of the rating action implementing the appellate decision granting the increase.

(ii) Unless otherwise provided in the fee agreement between the claimant or appellant and the agent or attorney, the agent's or attorney's fees will be determined on the basis of the total amount of the past-due benefits even though a portion of those benefits may have been apportioned to the claimant's or appellant's dependents.

(iii) If an award is made as the result of favorable action with respect to several issues, the past-due benefits will be calculated only on the basis of that portion of the award which results from action taken on issues concerning which the criteria in paragraph © of this section have been met.

(4) In addition to filing a copy of the fee agreement with the Office of the General Counsel as required by paragraph (g) of this section, the agent or attorney must notify the agency of original jurisdiction within 30 days of the date of execution of the agreement of the existence of an agreement providing for the direct payment of fees out of any benefits subsequently determined to be past due and provide that agency with a copy of the fee agreement.

(i) Motion for review of fee agreement. Before the expiration of 120 days from the date of the final VA action, the Office of the General Counsel may review a fee agreement between a claimant or appellant and an agent or attorney upon its own motion or upon the motion of the claimant or appellant. The Office of the General Counsel may order a reduction in the fee called for in the agreement if it finds by a preponderance of the evidence, or by clear and convincing evidence in the case of a fee presumed reasonable under paragraph (f) of this section, that the fee is unreasonable. The Office of the General Counsel may approve a fee presumed unreasonable under paragraph (f) of this section if it finds by clear and convincing evidence that the fee is reasonable. The Office of the General Counsel's review of the agreement under this paragraph will address the issues of eligibility under paragraph © of this section and reasonableness under paragraph (e) of this section. The Office of the General Counsel will limit its review and decision under this paragraph to the issue of reasonableness if another agency of original jurisdiction has reviewed the agreement and made an eligibility determination under paragraph © of this section. Motions for review of fee agreements must be in writing and must include the name of the veteran, the name of the claimant or appellant if other than the veteran, and the applicable VA file number. Such motions must set forth the reason, or reasons, why the fee called for in the agreement is unreasonable and must be accompanied by all evidence the moving party desires to submit.

(1) A claimant's or appellant's motion for review of a fee agreement must be served on the agent or attorney and must be filed at the following address: Office of the General Counsel (022D), 810 Vermont Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20420. The agent or attorney may file a response to the motion, with any relevant evidence, with the Office of the General Counsel not later than 30 days from the date on which the claimant or appellant served the motion on the agent or attorney. Such responses must be served on the claimant or appellant. The claimant or appellant then has 15 days from the date on which the agent or attorney served a response to file a reply with the Office of the General Counsel. Such replies must be served on the agent or attorney.

(2) The Assistant General Counsel shall initiate the Office of the General Counsel's review of a fee agreement on its own motion by serving the motion on the agent or attorney and the claimant or appellant. The agent or attorney may file a response to the motion, with any relevant evidence, with the Office of the General Counsel (022D), 810 Vermont Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20420, not later than 30 days from the date on which the Office of the General Counsel served the motion on the agent or attorney. Such responses must be served on the claimant or appellant.

(3) The Office of the General Counsel shall close the record in proceedings to review fee agreements 15 days after the date on which the agent or attorney served a response on the claimant or appellant, or 30 days after the claimant, appellant, or the Office of the General Counsel served the motion on the agent or attorney if there is no response. The Assistant General Counsel may, for a reasonable period upon a showing of sufficient cause, extend the time for an agent or attorney to serve an answer or for a claimant or appellant to serve a reply. The Assistant General Counsel shall forward the record and a recommendation to the General Counsel for a final decision. Unless either party files a Notice of Disagreement with the Office of the General Counsel, the agent or attorney must refund any excess payment to the claimant or appellant not later than the expiration of the time within which the General Counsel's decision may be appealed to the Board of Veterans' Appeals.

(j) In addition to whatever other penalties may be prescribed by law or regulation, failure to comply with the requirements of this section may result in proceedings under §14.633 of this chapter to terminate the agent's or attorney's accreditation to practice before VA.

(k) Notwithstanding provisions in this section for closing the record at the end of the 30-day period for serving a response or 15 days after the date on which the agent or attorney served a response, appeals shall be initiated and processed using the procedures in 38 CFR parts 19 and 20. Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the Board's authority to remand a matter to the General Counsel under 38 CFR 19.9 for any action that is essential for a proper appellate decision or the General Counsel's ability to issue a Supplemental Statement of the Case under 38 CFR 19.31.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 5902, 5904, 5905)

(The Office of Management and Budget has approved the information collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0085)

[73 FR 29875, May 22, 2008]

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Seems the 20% attorney fee is only covered to the date of the NOD, since they are not allowed to charge for services prior to the filing of an NOD. 

 

example:

Claim filed in 2010

NOD Filed 2013

Claim Awarded 2018 with EED 2010

Attorney Fee is 20% to 2013 date of NOD

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